Cosmogenic exposure dating
It is effective on timescales of several millions of years.
It assumes that boulders have not been buried and then re-exposed at the Earth’s surface.
The glacial stages that have been identified are: the Indus Valley glacial stage, dated at older than 430 ka; the Leh glacial stage occurring in the penultimate glacial cycle or older; the Karglacial stage, occurring during the early part of the last glacial cycle; the Bazgo glacial stage, at its maximum during the middle of the last glacial cycle; and the early Holocene Khalling glacial stage.
Cosmogenic nuclide dating is useful for directly dating rocks on the Earth’s surface.
It gives an Exposure Age: that is, how long the rock has been exposed to cosmic radiation.
There are so many other methods of dating Quaternary sediments and organic material that it is impractical to cover them all here in detail.
Uranium-series uses the decay of uranium and thorium isotopes (Th) in calcites in particular, such as stalactites and stalagmites in caves.